Equipoise headaches

Prevention of migraine following PFO-closure is the pursuit of
possible benefit involving a remote circulatory effect on the brain
circulation. While the practice of PFO-closure for migraine itself cannot
be currently recommended, serious conceptual groundwork is still missing
from this research endeavour. Neither the aura nor the headache represents
the true onset of the migraine attack; brain circulatory changes or
cortical spreading depression must not be construed as the part of the
early physiological changes in migraine (9). The primary pathogenetic
aberrations in migraine lie buried in the largely clinically inaccessible
but variably extended prodromal and pre-prodromal phases (9). Larger
studies with optimal designs will not eliminate these basic scientific
issues (3-7, 9). Since almost 50% of migraine with aura patients do not
have a PFO (1), pathogenetic mechanisms other than PFO-related are clearly
The discovery of PFO in a fraction of migraine patients is no more than an
interesting diversion on the tortuous pathway to the final elucidation of
its pathophysiology. To suspend clinical disbelief at this stage of
evolution of migraine mechanisms and to repeatedly underscore the need for
a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) does not appear justifiable.
Clinical trials mandate a certain level of pathophysiological and
pharmacotherapeutic clarity. From beta-blockers to magnesium (10) to
botulinum toxin (11), serendipity has guided migraine research. We may
seem to have come a long way but migraine therapeutics, particularly
preventive or prophylactic therapy, remains purely empirical. A RCT of PFO
-closure in migraine will compare one empirical therapy with another. Let
us not begin another round of fruitless clinical activity in which the
double-blind will lead the single-blind. To do so would be again
tantamount to pure misuse of the RCT (12).

Aldactone is a very effective diuretic. Many performance athletes often assume it’s weak but this is normally due to a misguided assumption pertaining to their own physique. If you are truly in shape and use this diuretic, such as a competitive bodybuilder, you will appear sharper once you hit the stage. If you do not appear noticeably sharper, this simply means you were fatter than you thought. As a therapeutic diuretic, you will also find Aldactone is far more comfortable than other options, but in severe cases of hypertension and edema it’s sometimes not enough. However, there is no reason a healthy athlete should really ever need anything stronger than this diuretic, and this is good news as stronger loop-diuretics can be very damaging to the athlete’s health.

Equipoise headaches

equipoise headaches


equipoise headachesequipoise headachesequipoise headachesequipoise headaches