ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers: The renin-angiotensin system exists specifically in the bladder and the urethra. Blocking angiotensin receptors with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers decreases both detrusor overactivity and urethral sphincter tone, leading to reduced urge incontinence and increased stress urinary incontinence. 29 Furthermore, ACE inhibitors can result in a chronic dry cough that can cause stress incontinence. This was demonstrated in a female patient with cystocele who was receiving enalapril. The patient developed a dry cough and stress incontinence, which ceased within 3 weeks of discontinuing the ACE inhibitor.
Finasteride was the first 5-ARI to be introduced for medical use.  It was marketed for the treatment of BPH in 1992 and was subsequently approved for the treatment of pattern hair loss in 1997.  Epristeride was the second 5-ARI to be introduced and was marketed for the treatment of BPH in China in 2000.  Dutasteride was approved for the treatment of BPH in 2001 and was subsequently approved for pattern hair loss in South Korea in 2009 and in Japan in 2015.   The patent protection on finasteride and dutasteride has expired and both drugs are available as generic medications .