Scientists continue to work on better ways to design, conduct and evaluate non-randomized (., observational) studies to assess how well flu vaccines work. CDC has been working with researchers at universities and hospitals since the 2003-2004 flu season to estimate how well flu vaccine works through observational studies using laboratory-confirmed flu as the outcome. These studies currently use a very accurate and sensitive laboratory test known as RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) to confirm medically-attended flu virus infections as a specific outcome. CDC’s studies are conducted in five sites across the United States to gather more representative data. To assess how well the vaccine works across different age groups, CDC’s studies of flu vaccine effects have included all people aged 6 months and older recommended for an annual flu vaccination. Similar studies are being done in Australia, Canada and Europe. More recently, CDC has set up a second network the Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN) that looks at how well flu vaccine protects against flu-related hospitalization among adults aged 18 and older.
This web site is a repository of publicly available information, and is not intended to form a physician-patient relationship with any individual. The content of this website is for informational purposes only. The information presented on this web site is not intended to take the place of your personal physician’s advice and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Discuss this information with your own physician or healthcare provider to determine what is right for you. All information is intended for your general knowledge only and is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment for specific medical conditions. The information contained herein is presented in summary form only and intended to provide broad consumer understanding and knowledge. The information should not be considered complete and should not be used in place of a visit, call, consultation or advice of your physician or other health care provider. Only a qualified physician in your state can determine if you qualify for and should undertake treatment.
AndroGel ® (testosterone gel) 1% and % are controlled substances, available by prescription, used to treat adult males who have low or no testosterone due to certain medical conditions. It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective to treat men who have low testosterone due to aging . It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective in children younger than 18 years old . Testosterone products that are applied to the skin may have different doses, strengths, or application instructions that may lead to different levels of testosterone in your body .